In the process of spraying paint, there are various solvents containing benzene and benzene compounds, such as toluene, xylene, etc. The common industrial solvents such as ethanol and butanol in diluent are also toxic, and some are even highly toxic, such as methanol. The existence of these toxic substances is toxic to human nervous system, respiratory system and skin, etc. Such phenomena including benzene poisoning and lacquer poisoning occur most frequently. During the painting process, a large amount of volatile gases are often produced and spread in the air. These large amount of toxic hot gases, if inhaled by the human body, can cause neurological disorders and generally appear as dizziness, palpitations, nausea and vomiting. If fingers and other parts of the body are frequently exposed to various solvents and toxic gases, it can also cause skin corrosion, degreasing, itching, roughness, cracking and other diseases.
In the environment of spray painting, working 8 hours a day, although working in a safe environment, everyone's sensitivity and ability to withstand is not exactly the same. The longer the time, the more it accumulates over time, it is inevitable that the body will not be affected, so it is important to take the necessary protective measures in the painting workplace, which can be considered from the following aspects.
I. Establish safety first thought and enhance the concept of protection
When carrying out painting construction, you must establish the idea of safety first, enhance the concept of protection, and implement specific safety protection measures. First of all, you should understand the types and characteristics of paints, the way of toxicity to human body, the precautions of using paints, and the first aid measures when poisoning may occur. In particular, construction in poorly ventilated or non-ventilated environments such as indoors, in ships' cabins, underground construction sites, mines, vehicles, etc. should never exceed the maximum allowed concentration of solvents and working time limits.
II. Ensure the normal operation of construction equipment and safety protection devices
In the process of painting construction, correct construction technology, normal and intact construction equipment and safety protection devices are the fundamental guarantee of safe production, which is a complete system project without one. According to the specific situation of painting production, consider the configuration and use of the painting construction equipment and safety protection devices used. If volatile solvents are used for indoor construction, sealed equipment or exhaust devices should be used to prevent equipment leakage. If painting inside tanks or cans, make sure that the exhaust and intake air volumes are balanced. In short, there should be necessary construction equipment and safety protection devices to ensure the safety of painting production.
III. Improve the construction environment, to ensure normal ventilation and air exchange
It is a fundamental measure to prevent fires and explosions, and an important means to prevent harmful gases from exceeding the standard. Generally speaking, the area of windows and other openings directly ventilated with the outside world should be more than 1/20 of the floor area of the painting workshop in order to have normal ventilation. If there is good ventilation equipment, it is not limited by the above ratio.
IV. Strengthen the construction environment testing
For indoor construction, check the air concentration at least once every six months to maintain a good construction environment. For large changes in painting production, such as large changes in output and process, important parts, i.e. parts with large unsafe factors, must be tested in time. We can grasp the change status of data of each part in order to take corresponding measures. For the widely used organic mixed solvents, such as acetone, xylene, toluene, ethanol acetate, ethylene dichloride, etc. must be regularly checked for the degree of contamination, the determination of sampling sites. Mainly selected in the exhauster internal, exhaust, floor, near the canopy and other parts, and measurement of the concentration distribution, as well as the selection of the same plane interval places for the measurement point. According to the measured data and distribution status, check with the control standard. If the standard is exceeded, the corresponding measures should be taken to deal with it to prevent accidents and ensure a good and safe environment for construction.
V. Protection of operators
In the process of painting, operators operate directly in the construction site, where there are paints and solvents, and various toxic gases and solvents are pervasive and fill the whole site. Therefore, it is very necessary and imperative to protect the operator personally. This is also an important part of the painting safety technology. The construction personnel should wear various protective gears such as overalls, gloves, masks, masks, glasses and shoes and hats during the painting operation. Do not let the solvent touch the skin. At the same time, rub the exposed skin with medical petroleum jelly or other skin care products. Pay special attention to the solvent's low boiling point, fast evaporation, high toxicity and easy inhalation into the trachea of the spraying workplace to prevent inhalation into the lungs. Toxic gases emitted during construction, at high concentrations, have a serious stimulating and harmful effect on the human nerves, causing cramps, dizziness, coma, pupil dilation and other symptoms. At low concentrations, headache, nausea, fatigue and abdominal pain also occur. If not protected in time, in long-term exposure can cause loss of appetite, damage the hematopoietic system, and chronic poisoning.